Tuesday, December 21, 2021

Graf Spee and Montevideo

Admiral Graf Spee
Maritime Museum of Montevideo

The Admiral Graf Spee was a German "pocket battleship" of ten thousand tons that was launched with considerable Nazi fanfare in 1936.  She was armed with six 11" guns in two triple gun turrets.  She was a fast ship capable of cruising at 28 knots.  Prior to the German invasion of Poland which commenced on September 1939 the Graf Spee was ordered to deploy to the South Atlantic.  With the outbreak of WW2 Captain Hans Langsdorff led her on a spree of destruction in the waters of the South Atlantic.  She sank nine merchant vessels accounting for a tonnage greater than 50,000.

Battle of River Plate Plaque
Maritime Museum of Montevideo

The Royal Navy responded by vectoring in three warships to confront the Graf Spee...the HMS Ajax, HMS Achilles (Royal New Zealand Navy) and HMS Exeter.  This intercepting fleet of cruisers was commanded by Commodore Henry Harwood.  Each of the three Allied ships was smaller and less formidably armed than the Graf Spee.  But Harwood relied upon superior numbers to take on the Graf Spee at the Battle of the River Plate which was fought on December 13, 1939.  

Anchor of HMS Ajax
Punta del Este, Uruguay

The battle was inconclusive.  The Graf Spee inflicted damage on the three Allied ships but was also damaged herself.  Captain Langsdorff was wounded twice by splinters while standing at the bridge.  The Graf Spee was forced to retreat to the Uruguayan capital of Montevideo where Langsdorff requested two weeks time to make repairs to the ship.  Uruguay, a neutral nation, only permitted the Graf Spee 72 hours to repair the vessel.

Adolph Hitler Plaque
From Graf Spee
Maritime Museum Montevideo

Langsdorff believed, mistakenly, that more than three Allied ships lay in wait to intercept the Graf Spee if it should leave Montevideo.  He decided that a second Battle of the River Plate was not worth the risk.  He chose to scuttle his ship on December 17 outside Montevideo harbor.  He then proceeded to Buenos Aires where he blew his brains out in a hotel room while lying in the ship's ensign.  Many German sailors and officers, stranded in Uruguay, made their way to Argentina for the duration of the war.  Artifacts from the wreck of the Graf Spee have been recovered over the years since.  Many were sold to collectors.  A few can be found at the Maritime Museum of Montevideo...http://www.histarmar.com.ar/Museos/MuseoNavalMontevideo.htm.

Churchill heartily congratulates sailors of the HMS Ajax
who vanquished the Graf Spee

Winston Churchill, head of the admiralty in December 1939, celebrated the Allied victory over the Graf Spee with gusto.  Churchill knew that Harwood and the British had essentially bamboozled Langsdorff into overestimating Allied naval strength in the South 'Atlantic.  Had the Graf Spee chosen to challenge the Allied blockade of Montevideo she could, perhaps, have damaged a British cruiser and escaped to wreak more havoc upon Allied merchant shipping.

Falklands War

The legacy of the victory over the Graf Spee lives on.  The Royal Navy, the nation's senior service, has had a proud winning tradition from Drake to Nelson.  In 1982 the Royal Navy would be tested again when the Argentine Junta invaded the Falklands islands.  Thatcher dispatched a Royal Navy fleet 8,000 nautical miles to the South Atlantic to liberate them from Argentine control.  The United States remained officially neutral but Reagan helped to provide fuel, ammunition and intelligence in the campaign.  The Argentine Cruiser Belgrano was torpedoed and sunk on May 2, 1982 by HMS Conqueror costing 323 lives.  The Belgrano has originally been the USS Phoenix -- a Brooklyn class cruiser in the US Navy.  She was a veteran of Pearl Harbor and had once served as MacArthur's flagship.

Sinking of Belgrano

Tourist Notes: The Maritime Museum of Montevideo is a small but excellent institution which preserves Uruguayan naval history...http://www.histarmar.com.ar/Museos/MuseoNavalMontevideo.htm.  They even have a cannon from the HMS Agamemnon that was captained by Horatio Nelson.  

Cannon from HMS Agamemnon
Maritime Museum of Montevideo

Many of the Uruguayan wines are delicious.  I particularly enjoyed the Tannat Reserve produced by Bodega Garzon...https://bodegagarzon.com/en/wine/reserva-tannat-2016/.

Finally, when you visit Uruguay's capital don't forget to bring some quarters -- in order to play the Montevideo games!

You can find signed copies of our books at these web sites...



Wednesday, December 1, 2021

Invading Madeira

Commander K
"Invading" Madeira 2021

Madeira is a small but beautiful island off the coast of West Africa.  It is a hilly mountain rising up from the sea.  A fertile garden archipelago surrounded by blue.

Henry the Navigator
1394 - 1460
Funchal, Madeira

The Greek philosopher Plutarch described two islands off the coast of Africa as being the isles of the Blessed.  There is some evidence that Vikings may have visited these islands.  But it was really two Portuguese captains who officially discovered these islands in 1418.  One of these, João Gonçalves Zarco, was appointed first captain of Funchal by Henry the Navigator (1394 - 1460).  Henry was the prime mover behind the Portuguese era of exploration.  Under his leadership, the Portuguese began to colonize Madeira after 1420.  Funchal remains the capital of the Madeira archipelago.

João Gonçalves Zarco
1390 - 1471

In 1617 Barbary corsairs from North Africa raided Porto Santo and captured around 1,200 people.  During this period the Barbary pirates were raiding throughout the Mediterranean and as far as Ireland.

USS Constitution vs HMS Java
Geoff Hunt (Author's collection)
She was christened with Madeira wine

Madeira is famous for its sweet wine that has been produced for centuries.  Thomas Jefferson was a fan of madeira wine.  The USS Constitution was christened in 1797 with a bottle of madeira.  The fortified wine was immortalized in the ribald Flanders and Swann song Have Some Madeira M'Dear...

Lying near the equator the island was fertile and suitable for growing sugar cane.  Slave labor from Africa was utilized in the sugar plantations.

In 2012 my coauthor, Stuart Laycock, wrote a book called All the Countries We've Invaded...And the Few We haven't gotten around to (https://www.amazon.com/All-Countries-Weve-Ever-Invaded/dp/0750952121/ref=sr_1_1?crid=1ELTYR1LS8YWE&keywords=all+the+countries+we%27ve+ever+invaded&qid=1638388447&sprefix=all+the+countries+%2Caps%2C1515&sr=8-1).  He describes how the British have invaded or fought in 90% of all the countries in the world.  The British invaded Madeira as well.  In 1801 they first occupied occupied Madeira.  The left in 1802 in accordance with the Peace of Amiens only to reoccupy the island in 1807.  They held onto the island until the end of the Peninsular War when they returned control of the island to their Portuguese ally.  

Churchill in Funchal

Winston Churchill was fond of Madeira.  He, like so many other tourists, arrived in Funchal in January 1950 from a cruise liner -- the Durban Castle.   He and Clemmie stayed at Reid's hotel which has recently reopened after a brief closure due to the Covid-19 pandemic (https://www.belmond.com/hotels/europe/portugal/madeira/belmond-reids-palace/).  Churchill enjoyed painting the islands' scenic landscapes.

In March of 1916 Imperial Germany declared war on Portugal in World War I.  As a result, war came to the normally peaceful Madeira islands later that year on New Year's Eve, 1916 when a German U-boat crept into Funchal harbor and sank one British and two French vessels.  The aggressive German sub rose to the surface and proceeded to bombard Funchal with its deck guns.  Three residents were killed in the attack which lasted about two hours before the U-boat was driven off by shore batteries.

Karl I, the last emperor of Austria Hungary was exiled to Madeira after World War I.  The last Hapsburg monarch died of bronchitis at age 34 and is buried at the church of Our Lady of the Mount in Madeira. The assassination of his older brother, Franz Joseph, in Sarajevo in June of 1914 was the even that triggered the start of World War I.  My great grandfather, Thomas Tileston Wells, was crossing the Atlantic to Europe with his wife and family at the time of the assassination (www.anadventurein1914.com).


In 2019 about 1 1/2 million tourists visited the Madeira archipelago which compares with a local population of about a 1/4 million.  Tourism accounts for about 20% of the local economy.  

Commander K says by all means, "Have some Madeira, M'dears!"

Viking Jupiter
Funchal, Madeira

Tourist Notes: I had the pleasure of visiting Madeira in November 2021 while sailing with the Viking Jupiter from Barcelona to Buenos Aires.  Viking is an excellent Cruise line...https://www.vikingcruises.com

You can find signed copies of our books at these web sites...


Saturday, November 27, 2021

Mission: Jimmy Stewart and the Fight for Europe

Jimmy Stewart
1908 - 1997

Robert Matzen's Mission: Jimmy Stewart and the Fight for Europe was published in 2016 (https://www.amazon.com/Mission-Jimmy-Stewart-Fight-Europe/dp/173227357X/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1638016209&sr=8-1).  Jimmy Stewart was a remarkable American actor and a remarkable man as well.  Stewart's family had a strong military tradition.  His grandfather, the original James Stewart, served in the Union army in the US Civil War with Phil Sheridan.  His father, Alex, had served as a doughboy in the American Expeditionary forces in WWI.

Jimmy Stewart seemed to be on an altogether different life path.  He attended Princeton University where he participated in theatrical programs.  He became a close friend of Henry Fonda.  This Pennsylvania native moved west to Hollywood to pursue a career in film acting.  Stewart shot to the top of his profession.  In 1941 he won an academy award for best actor for his role in The Philadelphia Story.

But the drumbeat of war did not escape the attention of Stewart who had trained as a pilot in preparation for war.  In March of 1941, months before the attack on Pearl Harbor, Stewart received an ORDER TO REPORT FOR INDUCTION as a US Army reservist.  Though he was 33 years old in 1941 and considerably older that his peers in U.S. Army Air Corps but Stewart was determined to become an active duty pilot.  He even defied the wishes of his studio boss Louis B. Mayer who had hoped to keep Stewart safe and stateside making propaganda pictures during the war.  

B-24 Liberator Stained Glass
National Museum of the Mighty 8th Air Force
Pooler, GA

Stewart was training at Moffett Field in California when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.  He later trained at Gowen Field in Idaho and Kirkland Field in New Mexico.

After his training, Stewart was posted to Tibenham in East Anglia in the UK.  Stewart piloted a B-24 Liberator bomber in the 445th Bomb Group of the "Mighty" 8th Army Air Force.  The B-24 was a notoriously difficult plane to fly.  Stewart mastered the tricky plane and flew in twenty combat missions over Nazi occupied Europe.  He served as a chief of staff for missions that bombed targets in occupied France prior to the Normandy invasion in June 1944.  Nor did he seek publicity for his wartime service while in the military.

Flying daylight bombing missions was incredibly hazardous.  The Germans sent up a cloud to flak from their AA guns positioned all over occupied Europe.  Luftwaffe pilots were usually experienced and well equipped.  The Fock Wolf 190 was a fast and capable interceptor.  The final stages of the war saw the introduction of German jet fighters such as ME-262 that could reach speeds of 515 mph.  Stewart's final mission involved bombing a jet fighter factory near Achmer.  

In addition to enemy action, simply flying the Liberator in formation could be extremely hazardous.  Accidents cost many lives in the course of the war.  The Sunflower Sue, for example, was lost with its crew of ten and four passengers while flying over the Caribbean en route from Puerto Rico to British Guyana.

Colonel Stewart
445th Bomber Wing

 Jimmy Stewart earned the silver eagles of a full colonel.  In that capacity he wrote many condolence letters to the families of downed airmen.

After the war was over and Stewart was discharged he refused to talk to the press about his wartime experiences.  He never sought to profit from his war service in any way.  He continued to serve in the reserve.  During the Vietnam War he rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the US Air Force.  He flew on a B-52 mission over Vietnam as an observer.

In 1946 Stewart starred as George Bailey in Frank Capra's It's a Wonderful Life.  Ironically, Bailey, despite his severe wanderlust, stayed home and built up the Building and Loan while his brother went off to war.  The film received scant attention at the time but went on to become a Christmas classic.  Stewart had been a witness to the full horrors of war and these experiences unquestionably deepened and informed his acting. Matzen's book barely mentions the incredible work that Stewart did with Alfred Hitchcock in Vertigo and Rear Window. But these dark haunting performances would have been unthinkable without Stewart's searing experience in WW2.

Matzen's book is not a balanced biography of Jimmy Stewart.  Clearly it focuses on Stewart's years of service in WW2.  It barely touches on his post war acting career or his marriage to Gloria Hatrick McLean.   Jimmy was a stepfather to Gloria's two sons.  The couple also had two daughters.  His stepson, Ronald McLean, was killed in 1969 Vietnam while serving as a Marine officer.  President Reagan promoted Stewart to the rank of Major General.

Matzen unaccountably neglects to mention that Walter Matthau (1920 - 2000) also served in the 453rd Bomber Group as a radioman-gunner.  But these are minor quibbles as Matzen's Mission is a Wonderful story about a truly Wonderful Life. 

National Museum of the Mighty Eighth Air Force
Pooler, Georgia

Tourist Notes: Commander K. highly recommends a visit to the National Museum of the Mighty Eighth Air Force in Pooler, Georgia... https://www.mightyeighth.org

You can find signed copies of our books at these web sites...



Sunday, November 7, 2021

The General vs. The President


H.W. Brand's 2017 The General vs the President is a timely re-examination of the Truman / MacArthur confrontation that roiled the world at the outset of the Cold War (www.amzn.com/0385540574).

MacArthur was no ordinary General.  He and his father were the only father / son team awarded a Medal of Honor in US history.  MacArthur was no intellectual lightweight -- he "ranked first in his class three out of his four years" at West Point.  He earned many medals for conspicuous bravery while fighting on the Western Front in World War I.  He accompanied French troops on trench raids to capture German troops behind enemy lines.  MacArthur was smart and he was brave.

That does not mean that he did no make his share of mistakes over a long and distinguished military career.  In the Philippines he allowed American planes to be destroyed on the ground immediately following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.  This inexcusably and unnecessarily crippled the Philippine air defense.   He miscalculated the determination of the Japanese to hold on to Manila (see my review of Rampage...https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/4122629330054677829/5794492647359096591). Korean War MacArthur badly underestimated the will and strength of the Communist Chinese.

Douglas MacArthur
1880 - 1964

But these failings should not prevent us from appreciating MacArthur's unique place in the panoply of American military figures.  MacArthur vowed that, "I shall return" to the Philippines; and return he did.  Winston Churchill declared, "Of all the amazing deeds of bravery of the war, I regard MacArthur's personal landing at Atsugo as the greatest of the lot."  MacArthur found the perfect tone when, on the deck of the USS Missouri, accepting the Japanese surrender he said, "It is my earnest hope, and indeed the hope of all mankind, that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge out of the blood and carnage of the past -- a world founded upon faith and understanding, a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish; for freedom, tolerance and justice."  MacArthur proved to be a remarkably successful Pro-consul for occupied Japan -- where he introduced women to the ballot box.

Brand notes that "the North Korean attack on South Korea took Douglas MacArthur quite by surprise."  But MacArthur seemed quickly to rise to the Communist challenge.  When South Korean and American forces were surrounded inside a narrow perimeter near the port of Pusan MacArthur plotted the United Nations' daring counterstroke at Inchon.  The amphibious invasion at Inchon turned the Communist flank, quickly liberated Seoul and was, perhaps, the most brilliant American use of military power of the post war era.  By December 1951 the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, was in the hands of UN forces.  Bob Hope held a celebration for the US GI's there.

But it was MacArthur's success led to his fatal hubris.  He dismissed reports of Chinese Communist forces massing north of the Yalu River.  Human wave assaults and massive numbers hit UN forces and drove them backwards towards the 38th parallel.

Harry S Truman
1884 - 1972

Appearances to the contrary, Harry Truman was no ordinary president.  He had served with honor in the artillery during World War I.  Brand neglects to mention that MacArthur, as head of the Rainbow division was, in fact, Truman's immediate boss during World War I.  Truman was largely an autodidact.  He read widely and he developed a reputation for incorruptibly despite his association with the Pendergast machine of Kansas City.  An ailing FDR chose him to be his Vice President in 1944. 

Though Vice President Truman had been told nothing about the atomic bomb prior to the death of FDR in 1945, he made the difficult but correct decision to use this tool to end Japanese resistance at the close of World War II.  He dropped bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki that killed over a hundred thousand people including most of whom were civilians.  Truman boasted that he "never lost any sleep" over these decisions. (I would submit that had Truman not unleashed the horror of atomic warfare in 1945, there is a high degree of probability that the US or SOME OTHER NATION would have utilized a future iteration of atomic power causing far more more deaths including perhaps the start of World War III.)

Rainbow Division WW1
MacArthur was Truman's boss first!

Truman and MacArthur collided when MacArthur veered out of his lane on account of his soaring political ambitions.  MacArthur saw himself, not merely as a hugely successful American field commander but also as a near Messianic savior against godless Communism.  MacArthur was very good in his perceptions of the working of the Oriental mind.  But he was very weak in his appreciation for the dynamics of domestic American politics.  Fatally, MacArthur disregarded the chain of command.  He made obtuse comments to the press and sympathetic veterans' groups.  At the end of the day, Truman was Commander in chief.  He had a constitutional duty to be the final arbiter of American foreign and military policy.

The Korean War degenerated into a brutal grinding stalemate along the 38th parallel.  Neither side could win.  America lost over 36,000 killed and far more wounded over the course of about three years.  The Republic of Korea and many other UN nations suffered as well.

Truman, like MacArthur, made a number of grave miscalculations in Cold War strategy.   Brand fails to point out several of Truman's blunders...1) that Truman abolished the OSS (Office of Strategic Services) mainly on account of his distaste for "Wild Bill" Donovan.  The CIA would have to be rebuilt from scratch starting in 1947.  2) Truman, bowing to domestic pressure, proceeded with a rapid and steep demobilization of US military forces following the conclusion of WW2.  American military power was not just trimmed but cut to the bone.  This gravely weakened US military capabilities prior to the outbreak of the Korean War.  These vulnerabilities would be exploited by the Communist forces.

Truman's firing of MacArthur is widely approved of by Brand and many other commentators.  But Truman COULD have run for re-election in 1952.  His treatment of MacArthur made him hugely unpopular at the time and led to his decision to not seek a second elected term.  As Brand accurately notes, "Truman's bold stroke in firing MacArthur ended his own career as surely as it terminated MacArthur's."

Dwight Eisenhower
1890 - 1969

In the end the American electorate got it right.  1952 and the crisis of the Korean War called for an experienced military leader at the helm.  But that leader was Eisenhower and not MacArthur or Truman.   Ike, the architect of D-Day, had a broader global perspective and greater diplomatic skills than either MacArthur or Truman.

Truman and his minions painted MacArthur's stated threat to use atomic weapons against the Chinese as sheer lunacy.  Yet it was precisely this same veiled threat, delivered by Ike through Indian intermediaries, that ultimately led to the fragile peace in Korea that endures to this day.

Finally, Brand's flawed but worthwhile book has a curious relevance to our 21st century.  In 2021 we seem to have experienced a "MacArthur moment" when General Mark Milley defied the orders of a duly elected president by undermining his policy in regard to China. 

Wednesday, November 3, 2021

Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare


Churchill's Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare is great fun (www.amzn.com/1250119030).  If you admire Winston Churchill, as I do, you will likely enjoy this book.  If you have an interest in exploring offbeat aspects of World War II you will enjoy this book.  If you enjoy history you will enjoy this book.

This is the story of the SOE -- the Special Operations Executive.  This was a bland name for a spicy unit that  took on extraordinary risks in WW2.  Following the fall of France, amidst some of the darkest days of the war, Winston Churchill conceived the SOE.  They would be trained in the dark arts of guerrilla warfare.  They would strike deep behind enemy lines.  They would use cutting edge technology.  And they would take enormous risks to strike back at an Axis that seemed to have a firm grip on the European mainland.  Churchill, frustrated by his inability to win a conventional war, asked them simply to "set Europe ablaze" by unconventional means.   Giles Milton's volume shows us exactly how they responded to Churchill's request.

"Set Europe Ablaze!"

Collin Gubbins was the intrepid head of the SOE.  In August of 1941 he saw off "Operation Postmaster" that set out in a fishing trawler with the Bondian name "Maid Honor" to fence with German U-boats off the coast of West Africa.  This expedition, led by Gus March Phillipps did not sink any U-boats.  Instead March-Phillipps led a daring cutting out expedition with two tugboats that captured an Italian ship (Duchessa d'Aosta) and two German vessels in Spanish-controlled equatorial Guinea in the dead of night.  The Italian captain of the captured ship had been drinking with his German colleagues in the nearby Casino Terrace restaurant.  Gubbins' crew scattered Free French kepis into the waters before they made off in order to muddy the waters.  British diplomatic authorities, concerned about the neutrally of Franco's Spain, lied through their teeth about the raid -- "in no way responsible for what happened prior to the capture of the enemy vessels on the high seas."  Milton neglects to mention that March-Phillipps was sadly killed the following year while leading a commando raid on the coast of occupied France.

This book is full of hair raising tales.  SOE trained agents were responsible for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in Czechosloavakia.  Brutal Nazi retribution followed in the wake of this incident.

SOE even managed to persuade the owners and managers of the Peugeot factory in Sochaux France that it would be better for their factories (manufacturing tanks) to be sabotaged rather than bombed from the air.  An earlier air raid on the target had killed around 125 civilians.  In November 1943 Rodolphe Peugeot agreed to have his own factory destroyed!

The SOE (along with the American OSS and French Resistance) played an important role in the widespread sabotage prior to and immediately following the D-Day invasion of June 1944.  These activities slowed German attempts to mount an effective counterattack to the Allied beachhead.  See also the Art of Resistance...https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/4122629330054677829/771004067849140658

Vilette Szabo
 1921 - 1945

Giles Milton neglects to mention Violet Szabo, an SOE operative, who was killed by the Nazis in 1945.  2021 marks the hundredth anniversary of the birth of this amazing and courageous woman.

This book offers another reason to admire Churchill and all of those who fought in defense of Freedom in the World War II.

You can find signed copies of our books at these web sites...


Friday, October 8, 2021

The Art of Resistance


Justus Rosenberg, the author of The Art of Resistance (www.amzn.com/0062742191) turned 100 years old in 2021.  This centenarian was born in Danzig (Gdansk) to Jewish parents.  His father was a prominent businessman.  Rosenberg grew up speaking German.  The Free City of Danzig held a unique political identity.  It was a port, a financial center, an entrepôt filled with ethnic Germans and Poles.  In the 1930s it was a curious mix of Nazis, Jews and fence sitters.  Danzig was teeming with anti-semitism and persecution of Jewish businesses was a factor in driving Rosenberg from his homeland as a young man.  In 1937 Rosenberg left for Paris to pursue his study of French literature at the Sorbonne.

Hitler founder of the Woke movement?
"Deutschland Erwache!"

On his journey to France Rosenberg stopped to visit Berlin where he was hosted by his uncle Martin who was a distinguished music conductor.  While he was in Berlin he went to the Sportpalast to see Hitler give a speech which urged Germans to wake up ("Deutschland erwache!")  Rosenberg's kindly uncle did not exactly approve of his nephew's curiosity about the Führer, but he had faith in the German people.  Martin Rosenberg would later perish at Auschwitz along with so many others.

Young Justus Rosenberg

Rosenberg was enchanted by Paris and all of the charms that it could afford a young man.  He worked as an extra at a theater production of Eighty Days Around the World.  He walked the streets of Paris as a self described "Flâneur" (loafer).  He had a gift for language becoming fluent in German, French and English.  Hitler's invasion of Poland in September 1939 brought the loafing to an end.  Poland was quickly overrun by the German Blitzkrieg.  Danzig was fully absorbed into the Reich and Rosenberg's immediate family had been fortunate to escape its occupation.   The "Phony War" or 'Sitzkrieg" provided a few months of respite from the full horrors of war.  But these days were shattered by the fall of France and the Low Countries in the spring of 1940.

As the Nazis marched into Paris Rosenberg fled and tried in vain to enlist in the Polish army in exile.  Arriving in Bayonne he just missed a ship filled with Polish volunteers headed to England.  He drifted to the south of France where he eventually met Varian Fry, an American who founded the Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC).  Rosenberg was hired by Fry to work as an "office boy" assisting in the ERC's work of spiriting out refugees from Nazi-Occupied Europe to America.  The ERC is credited with saving the lives of hundreds of intellectuals and celebrities such as Andre Breton and Marc Chagall.  Fry was expelled from France by the Vichy government.  Rosenberg delivers his opinion that Fry was somewhat over-rated.

In August of 1942, not long after the ERC's expulsion, Rosenberg was rounded up by the collaborationist government along with many Jews of different nationalities and sent to an internment camp.  This camp was designed to be a way station prior to being sent to concentration and forced labor camps further east.  Rosenberg sensed the danger that he was in and put his acting experience to work feigning the symptoms of peritonitis.  He must have put on a convincing performance as the camp doctors removed his appendix!  Soon after recovering in a nearby hospital he managed to escape with the assistance of a local priest.  A close shave indeed!

Rosenberg then managed to join the French Resistance which was being supplied by Britain's Special Operations Executive (SOE) and America's Office of Strategic Services (OSS).  He learned how to assemble and fire a Bren gun.  He trained to become a guerrilla fighter.  Rosenberg participated in several ambushes of German and was once wounded in the leg.

Many readers will be familiar with the Allied landings in Normandy (Operation Overlord) that began on June 6, 1944.  Less well know was Operation Dragoon which landed a force of around 150,000 men in the south of France beginning on August 15, 1944.  The French Resistance was doing all it could to prevent the reinforcement of the German encirclement of the Normandy beachhead.  It was blowing up rail lines, attacking German convoys, etc.

636th Tank Destroyer Battalion

It was in August of 1944, while preparing for a roadside ambush of three passing "German" soldiers that Rosenberg received a surprise that changed the direction of his life.  He noticed that they did not appear to be Germans at all.  He leapt out of his hiding place and shouted, "Stick 'em up!" in his best Hollywood Western accent.  Lieutenant Pete Rogers from the Reconnaissance Company of the 636th Tank Destroyer Battalion introduced himself.  This unit was formed in Texas and had seen hard service in the Italian campaign which began in Sicily in 1943.  Rogers, noting Rosenberg's linguistic abilities, would soon recruit him to join the American Army fighting in France and, later, Germany.  As a member of the 636th Tank Destroyer battalion he would interrogate captured German prisoners among his duties.  Rosenberg earned a Purple Heart after a jeep he was riding in hit a Teller mine on October 11, 1944.  Rosenberg and Rogers formed a lifelong friendship.  

Rosenberg's service in the US Army helped him to get a visa to immigrate to America after the war was over.  In the US he embarked on an academic career focussed on language and literature.  He taught at Bard College in New York's Hudson valley for many years.  He became a US Citizen and was, after an interruption of 15 years, finally reunited with those of his family members that had miraculously survived the war.

In 2017 Justus Rosenberg was awarded the rank of Commandeur de la legion d'Honneur by France.  At the ceremony he reflected on a Bertolt Brecht quote: "Pity the nation that is need of great heroes".   He also noted the traditional Jewish notion of Tikkun olam -- a duty to repair a broken world.  

Rosenberg was blessed by courage and good fortune.  A Roman Catholic priest once told him, "It is obvious that God had his finger on you."  Rosenberg, though ambivalent about religion, has blessed our world with his presence.  

Justus Rosenberg was and, blessedly, remains a great hero.  As a young man he fought for the principles that lie at the core of Western society.  He was incredibly fortunate to survive the bloodiest war in human history.  He has spent his life trying to repair our broken and often pitiful world.  As an old man he created amazing memoir -- The Art of Resistance (www.amzn.com/0062742191).  This work is an instant classic that ranks right up there with other WW2 memoirs such as Iris Origo's War in Val d'Orcia (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/4122629330054677829/4489448262907642900) and Audie Murphy's To Hell and Back (https://www.blogger.com/blog/post/edit/4122629330054677829/5378325722810460075).  Vive Justus Rosenberg!

If I ever had the honor of meeting Rosenberg I would have a single question: "Why did it take you so long to tell your story?"

You can find signed copies of our books at these web sites...